Analytical Study on Corruption Risk Assessment for REDD+ in Kenya
This report, commissioned by the National REDD+ Coordination Offi ce in the Ministry of Environment, Water and Natural Resources (MEW&NR) and the UN-REDD Programme, in collaboration with the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, provides an analysis of how corruption may infl uence the ability of REDD+ activities in Kenya to have successful economic, environmental and social outcomes. It also provides recommendations by a variety of stakeholders in Kenya to respond to these risks.
Section 1 details the purpose, methodology (and its limitations) and current context of REDD+ in Kenya. Several methods of research have been used to develop this institutional and context analysis: literature review, including published and non-published media sources, over 30 interviews with key governmental and non-governmental stakeholders at the national level and in the Kwale County, an online perception survey fi lled anonymously by 40 stakeholders, and a data gathering workshop held in July 2013. Section 2 considers the historical context, describing how past policy and institutional failures, including corruption, are an important factor in understanding the history of deforestation, forest degradation and the failure of the state to regulate and sustainably manage and conserve forests for the benefi t of all. In the 1990s and early 2000s irregular excisions of forests, mismanagement of state plantations as well as corruption in the then Forest Department escalated, leading to a loss of government credibility to manage forests responsibly. This culminated in the presidential moratorium on harvesting timber from state plantations. These developments infl uenced signifi cant governance changes in the mid 2000s, with the enactment of new forest legislation and the establishment of a new semi autonomous forest agency, Kenya Forest Service (KFS). The Forest Act 2005 provided among others, for stakeholder participation in forest management. The nature of forestry governance continues to evolve through the emergence of the outsourcing of conservation of public forests to the private sector, the lifting of the moratorium for harvesting timber, the regularization of charcoal production, as well as through the process of devolution established in the Constitution.
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